Straddling stocks are fish stocks that pass through or are located in more than one exclusive economic zone. The agreement was adopted in 1995 and came into force in 2001.  Overfishing (O): the fishery is exploited through optimal yield/effort, considered sustainable in the long term, with no potential for further expansion and no increased risk of depletion/collapse of stocks; Associated and dependent species are caught and/or affected in the fishery for straddling stocks, large migratory fish stocks and deep-sea fish stocks. Since landed catches that do not come from an interterritorial or highly migratory fish stock may be considered to be from deep-sea fish stocks, this audit considers the associated species to be affected species that are not part of the landed catches. Figure 1 shows the different configurations of large migratory fish stocks, straddling fish stocks and (entirely) deep-sea stocks. Transterritorial stocks offer the most diverse possibilities: they are most often found in an EEZ, most often on the high seas, evenly distributed between EEZs and high seas, and transterritorial stocks can also be cross-border. Neither the concept of discrete deep-sea fish stocks nor the following term is used in the CNUP, although Part VII of the Convention generally deals with the living resources of the high seas. The term or term is also not found in the FSA because of the nature and extent of the agreement in the manner originally conceived and negotiated. FAO (1994) used the term «high-quality sea stocks» for stocks not in the EEZ. However, the claim that fish stocks not present in EEZs are «pure» or «complete» on the high seas appears superfluous and may even be misleading, given that all other fish stocks likely to be on the high seas are already described in the relevant sections of Maritime Sea Law dealing with the living resources of the EEZs, as well as in the ASA, either as «interterritorial stocks» if they occur both within the EEZ and on the high seas or as «highly migratory stocks» when they are composed of species listed in UnCLOS Schedule 1, whether within the EEZ and/or on the high seas (it is is recalled that most highly migratory stocks will be a subtype of «straddling stocks» that are subject to slightly different regimes than the other living sea of the EEZ , as dealt with in Part V of UNCLOS). Therefore, the concept of offshore stocks is used in this review to refer to stocks exclusively or totally on the high seas, i.e. stocks that are neither migratory nor transterritorial. It is preferred to «discreet stocks on the high seas» because the discretion of these stocks is generally unknown (for example.
B fish caught on seas, hundreds or thousands of kilometres away, may not necessarily belong to discrete or separate biological units). However, some distinction should be made where «high marine resources (fishing resources) include velvet atoridl and inter-territorial stocks on the high seas, alongside all deep-sea stocks that are exclusively on the high seas. Large migratory fish is a term that has its origin in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea.